n.proactive steps taken to preserve archival resourcesMcCann 2013, 33The following sections will introduce preventive conservation as an approach that maximizes preservation resources while minimizing major preservation risks and is harmonious with the stated goals of MPLP of efficient resource management.McCann 2013, 34Preventive conservation describes activities that promote the stability of archival collections without intervening at the item level.Phillips 2015, 474–475Preservation is generally used as the umbrella term comprising conservation, holdings maintenance, and preventive care—sometimes called preventive conservation. Defined quite simply: conservation activities work to counteract current damage (e.g., removing rusty staples or mending tears); preservation works to prevent the future occurrence of damage (e.g., replacing acidic folders or removing non-rusted staples); preventive care is the subset of preservation activities that operate at the institutional level (e.g., climate control or integrated pest management); and holdings maintenance is the subset of preservation and conservation activities that act at the collection level to ensure appropriate and nondamaging housing and may well require action at the item or folder levels.Joffrion and Cloonan 2020, 144In an era of shrinking budgets and rising energy costs, it is imperative that the guardians of cultural heritage collections reconsider the impact of their traditional preservation practices and become more efficient and thoughtful stewards of the environment. Central to this conversation is the concept of preventive conservation, actions that avert or delay the deterioration of archival materials. These measures can reduce potential hazards through control of the environment and other conditions that damage collections. These efforts typically involve the use of passive measures to improve collection conditions that do not depend on mechanical processes, such as heating and cooling systems.