n.the return of cultural materials (particularly archival records) to the country or people who created themElwood 1987, 114–115The National Archives of Canada acquired the manuscript plans of canals and water routes in Ontario and Quebec, as appropriate to their collection (figure 5). The Provincial Archives of New Brunswick obtained the documents dealing with the New Brunswick disputed boundary claims and the Nova Scotia Museum retained the American Portfolio No. 4 and the Countess of Dalhousie’s portfolio. All four institutions contributed to this large repatriation project, greatly assisted by a Cultural Property Grant.McRanor 1997, 79As a result, the channels of communication should be opened to consult with First Nations about their opinions on the importance of collaboration to the representation of oral accounts and even the repatriation of such cultural property to their communities from often distant archival institutions.Wareham 2001, 34The treaty, and the associated claims settlement process, have influenced New Zealand archives practice and government record-keeping in a number of ways over the past three decades. These can be presented on a spectrum from reconnecting Maori with cultural information held in written records, to Maori reclaiming control over management of these resources, to calls for records’ repatriation to their cultural owners. Perhaps this mirrors patterns indicated for decolonization and empowerment of indigenous peoples, from “survival, to recovery, development and self-determination.”Kurtz 2006, 72If we focus on these kinds of archival practices, three points are critical. One is that the project involves a kind of return or repatriation.Laszlo 2006, 303Both parties agreed that improvements were needed in this relationship and that the partnership between the CMA and AFN was the correct vehicle to address the problems of the past. Three main issues were identified: increased involvement of Aboriginal peoples in the interpretation of their culture and history by cultural institutions; improved access to museum collections by Aboriginal peoples; and the repatriation of artifacts and human remains.Montgomery 2010, 154And the low threshold of the Hague Convention allowed for just about any record to be seized anywhere, including from museums and libraries, if said record served the purpose of military intelligence. Further, neither of the conventions (1907 or 1954) provided any guidance on the repatriation of captured records after the cessation of hostilities.Christen 2011, 187Digital technologies alter repatriation practices by allowing low-cost surrogates of cultural heritage materials to be returned to source communities. While scholars across many disciplines have focused on the ethical, legal, and political ramifications of physical repatriation, other forms of repatriation have been largely viewed as an extension of physical repatriation, or ignored altogether.Caswell 2011, 217Thus SAA and ACA asserted that, not only was repatriation of the records good for the Iraqi people, it would be good for international politics as well. It would be in the best political interests of the United States to return the records.Cox 2011, 473While return to Iraq may arguably be the appropriate solution for those groups of records, “repatriation” should not become the only acceptable solution to records seized in war.Montgomery 2012, 327The director general of the Iraq National Library and Archives, Saad Eskander, has denounced the “illegality” of both the U.S. seizure of records in the invasion and occupation as well as the IMF-Hoover deal, demanding the repatriation of all Iraqi records outside the country.Mathiesen 2012, 465Looking at the document as a whole, recommended practices that are likely to be controversial among librarians and archivists include 1) the removal of works for the purpose of repatriation or destruction, 2) intentional nonpreservation of works, 3) restricting access to works, 4) expurgation of works, 5) labeling of works, and 6) reclassification of works.Gilliland 2014a, 31Repatriation can occur as a result of redress, reparations, and replevin actions, in response to approaches articulated in community or Indigenous protocols, as negotiated in peace treaties or through the work of tribunals, or in circumstances where a former colonial power holds archives containing the historical records of a now-independent nation.Christen 2015, 7Repatriation movements around the world have seen Indigenous peoples demand access to, and stewardship of, their cultural heritage in varied ways.Joffrion and Fernández 2015, 196These include the importance of consulting with tribal communities; the need to provide special treatment for culturally sensitive materials; the incorporation of Indigenous knowledge in the development of metadata and other descriptive information; rethinking public accessibility and use of selected materials; the digital and physical repatriation of holdings; and reciprocal education and training. Thus the Protocols provide an avenue for respect, reciprocity, reconciliation, establishing relationships, and collaboration.Joffrion and Fernández 2015, 211We expected to find that digital and physical repatriation would be a major component for most projects, and we discovered that 46% of respondents were involved in these activities. The project director for the Plateau Peoples’ Web Portal noted that “the whole project could be seen as digital repatriation. It is about having the materials as part of a conversation and it’s about building relationships.”Montgomery 2015, 308–309The qualifying phrase “as far as possible” serves to acknowledge realistic circumstances in which the capturing state may assert its national security interests or other grave concerns in withholding records from repatriation, even though they may hold significance for the historical patrimony of the country of origin. Following World War II, for example, the United States withheld captured German documents that it considered to pose national security risks, to relate to German occupation of other countries, or to glorify the Nazi regime.O’Neal 2015, 14Although endorsed and successfully implemented by some organizations and repositories, not all archive professional groups agreed with the document, specifically with guidelines concerning access, use, and repatriation.Roy and Trace 2016, 168The recent graduates felt most conflicted about ideas of ownership versus repatriation when opening negotiations with tribal communities could result in the return of material.Mnjama and Lowry 2017, 111The Archivists of Africa have made resolution upon resolution concerning the repatriation of displaced archives, and these have been unknown or ignored in Europe.Laloë 2018, 240The repatriation approach taken with some biological samples might be one solution, but what is the equivalent for traditional archives?Hall and Love 2020, 66Working with the library’s Māori librarians, Te Reo o Taranaki helped navigate a process of digital repatriation, reconnecting traditional owners with the letters’ mauri and mātauranga—intangible heritage and intrinsic Māori knowledge. Until this point, the letters’ customary owners—descendants of the original scribes—have had no say in how these records are cared for, arranged, described or accessed.Hall and Love 2020, 75Digital repatriation offers communities a chance to reconnect and re-contextualise their own records from public repositories, with the potential to decolonise arrangement, description and modes of access.