n.debris or excrement produced by insectsBoal 1990, 17The telltale signs of an active infestation are dead beetles and frass (the debris from the larvae) on the shelves.Watson 1992, 14Where the infestations had been the worst, we checked back afterwards and found a lot of frass still on the shelves, which had obviously fallen out of the books since they had been vacuumed and returned to the shelves. We were mindful of the fact that frass attracts insects, but there was also another important consideration. After having so serious an infestation, we were determined to monitor the stacks more closely in the future, watching for new infestations. The clue to a new infestation is to find frass on the shelf.Kesse 1999Signs of Insect Infestation ¶ . . . ¶ Frass/Droppings, including black (roach) pellets, “poppy-seed” (termite) pellets, “saw-dust” (dermested or powder-post beetle) pellets, and suspicious piles of fine dust or powder. Frass varies widely in color. Smith 2009There were traces of mold and evidence of insect damage, usually identifiable by loss to paper, wood, and leather. However, this object was also noticeably infected with the resulting insect frass (excrement). While some areas of the leather covers had been eaten away by the offending insects, the pages were stained yellow and black from insect droppings. This was principally along the longitudinal edges of the pages. As a result, leaves could not lie flat due to distortion by the volume of frass.NEDCC 2015bLook for small piles of dust, insect bodies, frass (insect droppings), egg cases, and live insects; clean up any insect debris immediately.Anderson et al. 2021, 263As a result, the drawings were handled extensively, often stored rolled, and exposed to unfavorable climates around accumulated dust, dirt, and insect frass.