n.information in binary form and its associated metadataPark 2001, 282Unalterability/unchangability: Authenticity is associated with ensuring that no changes are made to the item. ¶ e.g., “Any data object in which not a single bit of the binary content has been modified. . . .”Forstrom 2009, 466This approach [“migration on request”] requires preservation of the original data object and a means of interpreting or rendering the object when needed.Schmidt 2011b, 288Repository can demonstrate when preservation responsibility is formally accepted for the contents of the submitted data objects (i.e., SIPs).Gueguen et al. 2013, 573Markup technologies, on the other hand, were intended to model traditional documents (texts of various sorts such as essays, letters, articles, books, and so on). In general, all of these types of data objects share many of the following features: irregular number of components (e.g., chapters or paragraphs), sequence or order is important (e.g., order of paragraphs matters); semiregular structure and unbounded hierarchy; arbitrary intermixing of data with markup; and arbitrary number of interrelations within and among documents.