n.a physical or digital collection of historical recordsBarrett 1961, 333The major effort must be to familiarize headquarters executives with the archive, its purpose, and its services.Adams 1962, 224Second, if a large professional archive is close by, the local society has an opportunity to assist in furthering the work of that archive and at the same time to receive invaluable help itself.Belov 1963, 439–440Then there is the Central State Archive of the October Revolution, without whose rich collection it would be quite impossible to reconstruct the history of the revolutionary movement, the victorious march of the Great October Revolution, and the multiform activity of the first workers’ and peasants’ Government in the world. This collection of several million records was established at the suggestion of V. I. Lenin and with his direct participation.Rich 1964To hope that the Archive [Toscanini Memorial Archives], or any similar project, could possibly lead to the playing of music from the past as it was played in the past—a canard often encountered today among the Baroque buffs—is hopelessly unrealistic. To hope, however, that the performances of such music be at least correct in terms of the notes in the composer’s score, is well within the province of reality. More than that, this is the hope that lies at the horizon of musical scholarship.Chatfield 1965, 108He explains that, while some institutions have set up records management centers where the student wishing to do research gets no encouragement and while he is quite aware of the problems involved in making an archive a research center, he pleads guilty of having built up, under the guise of “records management,” whole sections of the university archives simply to prevent the historians of another generation from committing the mistakes of a Parrington or a Charles Beard.Preston 1965, 374It has been questioned whether a public institution, such as an archive or a State library, can accept a collection of letters from an addressee, who has no authority to transfer the literary property right, or whether this making-them-publicly-accessible puts them into the public domain and so constitutes publication.McLellan 1966, 41Actually, constructing an archive at Boeing is relatively simple because the company is physically organized as one large archive. By and large, organizations are given functional names and for each name there is a number assigned at any point in time.Campbell 1967, 279More intensive machine indexing is making more readily available to scholars the known subject material of an archive and, possibly even more important, the unknown and frequently valuable peripheral material buried in hundreds of manuscript boxes.Wood 1967a, 319If archivists can evolve a basic set of information control terms, researchers will be able to go from one archive to another, quickly learning to use systems that will vary widely in equipment and output but will operate on common basic principles.Whitehill 1967, 428“Pots and pans history” pursued in this manner may lead the inquirer into almost any library, archive, or manuscript collection in the United States.Fielding 1967, 494Accordingly, the archive that aspires to collections in the area of the motion picture will wish to collect a variety of records providing insights into the financial, labor-management, and promotional affairs that precede, accompany, and follow the artistic realization of a film.Brown 1967, 501As one begins to think seriously of criteria for selection, of cataloging, of information retrieval, one comes to understand why, after 50 years, there is still no national archive specifically devoted to the motion pictures in this country.Wade 1985, 217When I first started playing the banjo I was fortunate to be told by someone that the best records, and the most music, in its deepest and most substantial forms—in other words the genuine sound of the banjo and folk music—were to be found on the albums issued by the Archive of Folk Song at the Library of Congress.Zboray 1987, 212Though dBASE has a steep learning curve, the program encourages experienced users to dabble in the internal programming language where the true flexibility of the system emerges; the expertise for more sophisticated adaptations of dBASE to the AMC format may thus eventually be found among the staff of an archive.Smither 1987, 328–329Given the volume of moving image material generated in the United States, and the potential number of participants in NAMID even at the archive level, the rest of the film archive world may be justified in thinking that if NAMID succeeds then everything is possible after all, and will watch progress with interest.Smither 1987, 330The FIAF Cataloguing Commission has been making similar efforts on behalf of the film archive community for several years, with the evolution of cataloging rules supporting an ISBD-like format for data exchange being the principal concern of the full commission since 1981 (due for completion in 1988) and with working parties from the commission simultaneously examining topics related to standards such as the question of designations for film genres, a particular concern for many film archives.Smither 1987, 333An archive that sends its catalog data for batch processing by an outside agency can find that data so tied up in complicated or expensive input and correction cycles that it never seems to get to its users.Page 1987, 405In 1940, Haggard established the Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol (later the Journal of Studies on Alcohol), and soon thereafter the center began issuing the Classified Abstract Archive of the Alcohol Literature (CAAAL)—abstracts of alcohol-related literature printed on punched cards for manual subject retrieval.Neal 1987, 459Edgerly informed Council that Jerome Robbins has donated a portion of his royalties in order to support an Archive of the Moving Image, and that the archive was recently opened. She asked if SAA might recognize Robbins and those involved in the Archive.Schrock 1987, 497New England has no regional archive to collect significant records of the built environment, provide information, coordinate acquisitions, encourage photographic documentary projects, and develop cooperative efforts.Kolsrud 1992, 31He suggested that administrative bodies should review their records every five years and sort out what they no longer needed. This should be the task of the administration itself. But, and this was the important point, it should be up to archive authorities to decide what was to be preserved of the material no longer needed for administrative purposes.Kahlenberg 1992, 73After the establishment of the GDR, this archive was renamed the German Central Archive. It also took care of the historical materials moved from the Secret Archive (Geheimes Staatsarchiv), the Central Archive of the former Prussian state that continued to exist as an institution in West Berlin.Basovskaya 1992, 129Approximately three years ago, another new archive was organized with the support of our institute. It was named the “Peoples Archives.” It is now an independent organization which has close contacts with our university.Blouin 1992, 189No system will ever be perfect for all needs, but this format has already proven its use and effectiveness in accomplishing the basic descriptive requirements of the Vatican Archives. What is important at this point is that it illustrates a potential for a format which is North American in origin to describe effectively an archive in the center of the European tradition, with an applicability that will be a central issue in any discussion regarding information exchange.Mitchell 1994, 205The corporate archive is located in a records retention centre thirteen kilometres from ICBC’s Head Office. Finding aids are maintained on a computer database at Head Office; the archive services internal reference requests by asking the retention centre clerks to send the archival records to the employee’s office.Haynes, Kaid, and Rand 1996, 49The archive has the active support of the Democratic and Republican National Committees, the National Association of Broadcasters, the American Film Institute, the American Association of Advertising Agencies, the National Archives, and the Library of Congress.North 1996, 82One of my earliest contacts was with the director of a county archive who, to my amazement and delight, e-mailed me, as an attachment, their holdings on two nineteenth-century female colleges and told me to let them know which items were of interest to me!Maher 1998, 254There are collateral tendencies to use the word “archive” minus its North American requisite “s” and to “verbify” the noun. ¶ In many cases, the nonprofessional appropriation of the term “archives” appears to be part of an attempt by the scholar or database builder to lend panache or cachet and an air of respectability to what otherwise might be little more than a personal hobby or collecting fetish. As archivists, should we simply welcome this popularization of the term “archives” or should we be bothered by the prevalence of its frequent misuse?Wurl 2005, 72Material may be gifted to a repository but with the expectation that in many respects, the relationship between donor and archive is just beginning.Schwartz 2006, 17Surely, archivists can find some familiar ground in his notion of the archive as the embodiment of legal intention.Beredo 2008, 31A modern archive is constituted by culling non-current records and is inherently borne of government bureaucracy.Ricci 2008, 450But since the transcription did not contain all of Anderson’s songs, the archive looked to the structure and rhythm of the silent newsreel form to enhance the overall effect of the new work.Hackbart-Dean 2010, 22The labor community immediately embraced the archive and assisted it in locating locals and international unions willing to donate historical materials.Monks-Leeson 2011, 40The concept of the archive as the storehouse of cultural memory arguably extends back to preliterate societies, where the history of a community or group was transmitted and renewed through oral traditions that communicated collective history.Stanford and Meyer 2011, 8Through the work of the garden club volunteers, their records more closely resemble an institutional archive than a manuscript collection, and the arrangement is more consistent with the original order.Buehn 2013, 6An important step in controlling the backlog of an archive is to refine its acquisition and appraisal guidelines.Bromley, Christman, and Page 2015, 34As the official archive of the Commonwealth of Virginia, we hold in trust the records of our government.O’Neal 2015, 6–7Therefore, he gives the simple suggestion of making researchers feel welcome, especially Native Americans, who may have never been to an archive before. Hagan clearly understood the inherent power that archivists wield regarding records and access to those records.Bastian 2016, 5Each student was asked to select a community archive in New England, using it as an ethnographic case study to determine its relationship and relevance to the community it represented. Students could interact with the archive in ways they felt most appropriate—as volunteers, outside observers, researchers—or a combination of strategies.Denk 2016, 1While an archive may focus on one aspect of history, whether it be The Civil War, literary figures, a university, or film, other aspects of history are always intertwined.Rettig 2017, 83Created by campus water professionals inspired by the WRCA, the Water Resources Archive provides a home for water-related collections that otherwise may have been lost to history. Losing a place’s water history, especially for a state such as Colorado, means losing part of the fundamental fabric of society. While wetter locales may have the luxury of taking supplies for granted, Colorado has always been affected by its semi-arid climate and has long worked to move water to appropriate places for beneficial uses.Stoykovich 2017b, 238Rather than a representation of all pre-Hispanic cultures before the Spanish conquest, his archive documents a very particular historical moment and is a highly contextual version of precolonial and colonial history. As matrilineal descendants of the former nobles in the Tetzcocan elite, his family had retained some power and land after the Spanish arrived. Cortés himself employed several Tetzcocans in the siege of Tenochtitlan.Hight et al. 2017, 9The department needed to establish a digital archive to address this shortcoming, in part by joining KAIC as an early step towards creating a digital initiative to collect both Web content and digital records.a fondsLeavitt 1961, 178I would agree that a document such as the Declaration of Independence became an archive immediately after it was written and signed, as the thought of its value to posterity and the intention of preserving it were doubtless in the framers’ minds from the beginning.Barrett 1961, 333If we define the archive as a corporation’s memory, the problem of acquisition becomes one of deciding what to remember. Such a seemingly simple approach is complicated by two things: (a) each corporate activity must pass a test of usefulness; and (b) the archive becomes a corporate asset and therefore a security problem.Preston 1965, 377The 64 letters are of more significance in relation to the massive Sinclair archive at Bloomington than they could be on their own. In this case an exchange was arranged, the Huntington Library receiving copies of the Lilly's Jack London letters, to add to the London archive already in San Marino.What’s New 1966, 215The Batman Archive. ¶ –Credit line under cut of a caricature of Gustav Mahler in the Washington Post, p. G1, Mar. 13, 1966.Campbell 1966, 299The American Relief Administration archive was selected because the diversity of its materials and their wide geographic range—over 30 countries—presented a greater technical challenge than a more homogeneous archive. Most of the materials are in English.Spadoni 1983, 292No doubt this kind of suspicion has led some archivists to imagine that a librarian would arrange and describe an archive by having a copy of Library of Congress Subject Headings in one hand and a copy of AACR in the other hand.Craig 1985, 60Conversations with medical records officers in London, England, indicate that retrospective research into records is the major component of current studies of changing surgical techniques and of cervical cancer. Extensive use has been made of the patient archive at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. These records have been created and maintained for the purpose of long-term use for over one hundred years.Schrock 1987, 487–488The Avery Architecture Library at Columbia University, however, is developing cataloging guidelines based upon the MARC format and subject headings from the Art and Architecture Thesaurus as part of its NEH project to preserve, catalog, and index its drawings archive on videodisc.Bassett 1987, 556Among the notable collections at Mystic Seaport are the papers, 1912-67, of Alfred P. Loomis, editor of Yachting, and the archive of the Cruising Club of America (letter from Gerald E. Morris, librarian, 8 September 1982).Lemmon 1992, 149The most important archive for Spanish Louisiana history and the Spanish colonial empire is the Archivo General de Indias. It dates from 1777 when historian Juan Bautista Mufioz was commissioned to write a history of the Spanish colonies. Due to the nature of his work, he realized it would be advantageous to unite the widely scattered documentation on the Spanish New World in one place.Winn 2015, 6Under a memorandum of understanding with the Iraqi government, U.S. officials agreed to return the archive at a future date; however, representatives of the Iraqi Jewish diaspora claim the archive as cultural heritage and property of the Iraqi Jewish community.an individual record of continuing valueMunroe 1963, 155It should be remembered that academic historians consider all archivists to be pirates anyway, constantly on the lookout for booty, racing each other to it, and stealing from each other with abandon. They develop elaborate definitions of archival materials only to expand their definitions to permit seizure of any papers of value they can get. By a process of ordination, a laying on of hands, they can and do convert into an archive anything they choose.Gersack 1966, 161Although it was a separate series of lectures, it may also be considered as part 1 of two groups of lectures, the second of which, scheduled to be given in January and February 1966, would deal with records management. “The organizers of the lectures hope that the course will continue in future years. . . . By linking the two series, it is deliberately intended to demonstrate that, fundamentally, there is no difference between an archive and a record—they are the same items at different stages in their life cycle.”Cox 1966, 226Arthur Link, editor in chief of The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, once wrote me his view, that publication is only scholarly confirmation of the intrinsic merit of a letter; and, to use an extreme example, the publication of literally millions of copies of the Declaration of Independence has not lessened one whit the supposed monetary value of this priceless archive.Wood 1967b, 442In the Twentieth Report space was given to a few paragraphs about private archives, one of the many types of records which find their way into record offices. Another category of record very closely allied to these is worthy of mention although it is much less easy to define. For the sake of convenience such accumulations can be termed “artificial collections.” The late Sir Hilary Jenkinson’s well-known definition of an archive can be brought into play at this point. He described such a document as one “which was drawn up or used in the course of an administrative or executive transaction of which itself formed a part: and subsequently preserved in their own custody for their own information by the person or persons responsible for that transaction and their legitimate successors; and not drawn up in the interest or for the information of posterity.”Beredo 2008, 26I suggest that archival practice, or the execution of archival techniques, also is a “performance emplotted by ... stories.” Execution of archival techniques, as Schellenberg describes, literally reconstitutes a document into an archive through appraisal, arrangement, and description (i.e., bring a document into an archive, file it in an acid-free folder, and now call it “archival”).a curated online collection of information and contextual data relating to a particular themeBenison 1965, 77In an area such as the history of science, where there has been relatively little bibliographical work on extant primary sources, such activity would be invaluable. By a judicious choice of topics an oral history office might in time collect an archive of precious manuscript sources that students might in future explore monographically.Gersack 1966a (deleted), 155The Archive of Contemporary Science and Technology at Case Institute of Technology is a “permanent repository for significant documents of American scientific and technological achievement during the last century.” The Archive invites the deposit of personal papers, correspondence, notes, pictures, drawings, minutes, research and development records, plans, or other documents by individual scientists, engineers, and inventors, as well as by “firsthand observers.”Reed 1967, 454In addition the gallery recognizes as an important part of its responsibility its function as a resource in history and art history for scholars, for other galleries and museums, and for individuals interested in American portraiture. To this end it will acquire many likenesses in various media, which it will not ordinarily exhibit but will hold in a study collection or archive; and it will endeavor to record in the Catalogue of American Portraits all or as many as possible of the portraits of historical figures found throughout the country.Zboray 1987, 218The amount of disk space such a system saves depends upon the nature of the archive. For control at the document level, as in the Goldman Papers and in most other documentary editing projects where the materials have a common focus, the great repetition of subject entries results in a dependent data base using only 10 percent or less of the bytes that full subject entries in the main record would require. Archives having a wide diversity of materials would employ a greater number of unique subject entries, thus slightly decreasing the amount of disk space saved.Michelson and Rothenberg 1992, 267England’s Oxford Text Archive (OTA) is a large repository of machine-readable text and includes text bases in more than twenty-five languages. Recently it served as a key source for a dissertation on Jane Austen’s novels.Kahle 2007, 28I was introduced to Rick Prelinger, who runs one of the largest private film libraries, and we did a collaboration where the Internet Archive paid for the digitization of his top thousand films and put them up on the Internet for free.Mifflin 2007, 35, fn. 12Note that many medical photographic collections developed in ways best described as “artificial” rather than “organic.” One, focusing exclusively on historical material, is the Burns Archive in New York, which licenses selected images from its collections on its Web site at http://www.burnsarchive.com/ archive/medical.html, accessed 11 May 2006.Price 2009In a digital environment, archive has gradually come to mean a purposeful collection of surrogates.Monks-Leeson 2011, 50The Walt Whitman Archive shares with the First World War Poetry Digital Archive a thematic context, although in this case one centered on the works of a sole creator.Woodbrook and Lazzaro 2013, 6A zine archive must sustain a sense of collective representation in order to remain relevant to its community. To accomplish this, ZAPP’s former library manager, Nora Mukaihata, speaks of the importance of maintaining a “living” archive. A living archive, in the case of ZAPP, is one in which those involved in the zine community actively participate in the archive as well.Winn 2015, 12–13Ensuring long-term access to digitized materials is a significant challenge. In 2014, Halilovich and Montgomery separately lauded two platforms for virtual access to displaced archives from the Bosnia and Iraq, respectively. In the brief window of time since the articles were published, both platforms—the Zepa Online archive and the Conflict Records Research Center (CRRC) at the National Defense University in Washington, D.C.—have ceased to exist.De Kosnik 2016, 6“Archive” in this book has multiple valences. I am writing about actual digital archives, websites you can visit, such as the Internet Archive, ibiblio, Project Gutenburg.Jones and Neubert 2017, 8For the harvested version of the site, it would mean we harvest as many versions of a particular news page as the news publisher chooses to provide different URLs based on their business needs. For example, in our archive we have one same story with five different URLs, reflecting the appearance of this one news item in multiple Huffington Post RSS feeds that we then used to drive our harvest of that very large site.Hight et al. 2017, 24Archive-It is currently being employed as an online archive of KU Web content. While there are many potentially valuable sources of content within the website, a particular emphasis has been placed on content pertaining to the Chancellor, Provost, and Commencement as prime, top level, resources for initial development and exposure.a conceptual construct of a storehouse of recorded knowledge with outsized social and political significance that generally controls meaning and discourse and serves as a simulacrum of truth and factFoucault 1972, 129The archive is first the law of what can be said, the system that governs the appearance of statements as unique events. But the archive is also that which determines that all these things said do not accumulate endlessly in an amorphous mass, nor are they inscribed in an unbroken linearity, nor do they disappear at the mercy of chance external accidents; but they are grouped together in distinct figures, composed together in accordance with multiple relations, maintained or blurred in accordance with specific regularities; that which determines that they do not withdraw at the same pace in time, but shine, as it were, like stars, some that seem close to us shining brightly from far off, while others that are in fact close to us are already growing pale.Merquior 1987, 83Thus the archive, the machine of discursive meaning, is at bottom at Weltspiel, a worldplay, a ludic cosmos engendering new active interpretations (discourses as practices) of life and society. And it is indeed a highly ironic archive: with it, no meaning remains stable, no truth is better than the next one.Brothman 1993, 208In Reading the Archive, the term “archive” stretches out over terrain that is sometimes recognizable and at other times probably strange to archivists: the archive as edifice; the archive as text; the archive as record; the archive as institution; the archive as university; the archive as scene of dissimulation or manipulation; the archive as discourse; the archive as professional paradigm (knowledge).Derrida 1996, 11Because the archive, if this word or this figure can be stabilized so as to take on a signification, will never be either memory or anamnesis as spontaneous, alive and internal experience. On the contrary: the archive takes place at the place of originary and structural breakdown of said memory.Miller 2002, 175Keen also introduces the Foucauldian notion of the term “archive” to offer a deconstructionist approach, which imagines the archive as the domain of discourse, without physical or institutional facets.Dodge 2003, 145Writers look at the archive from their perspectives as anthropologists, archivists, playwrights, artists, scientists, historians, literary critics and activists, but their common objective is the explication of the archive, however construed, as part of the technology of disciplinary power; as a source and site of knowledge production; as the servant of both hegemony and contestation; and as imbued with unstable, contingent, ceaselessly evolving significations. Power, understood as a Foucaultian phenomenon—as a web of disciplinary technologies, available to anyone, productive as well as oppressive—is a critical aspect of the archives and of the professional practices of the archivist, yet we seem reluctant to acknowledge the scope of that power and its potential for transformations of our own “imaginary.”Bastian 2006, 326If, as Taylor convincingly argues, the enduring materials in the archive holds sway over the way our civilization works, then the power of archives is very great indeed, and archivists must understand both their negative as well as their positive impact on society.Schwartz 2007, 200–201The Canadian archival community’s questioning of total archives and the adoption of RAD; the integration of archives and libraries or archives and museums, and attendant musing over the competencies of the new information professional; Library and Archives Canada’s abandonment of meaningful accession numbers in favour of meaningless, random-generated numbers, its “one fonds, one archivist” approach and consequent potential loss of specialized media expertise; and, at the international level, ongoing debates over the adoption of the series system or ISAD(G), are some of the most recent manifestations of well-intentioned, sometimes visionary, sometimes misguided initiatives, which dismantle, replace, or cover over, but never completely erase, the traces of previous, historically grounded organizational, classification, and descriptive systems—to say nothing of the value-laden process of appraisal in forming the archive in the first place of what records and media are of significant or lasting importance!Beredo 2008, 37Cultural studies’ analytical tools allow an understanding of the archive as a sociopolitical construct, an institution literally and figuratively contained by the ideological vocabulary available to the archivists who create them.Enwezor 2008, 11The standard view of the archive oftentimes evokes a dim, musty place full of drawers, filing cabinets, and shelves laden with old documents, an inert repository of historical artifacts against the archive as an active, regulatory system. It is this latter formulation of the archive that has engaged the attention of so many contemporary artists in recent years.Spieker 2008, xiA third possibility, the one explored in this book, is that the grid and its trash, the archive and what it stores, emerge at the same time so that one cannot easily be subtracted from the other. In this archive, the objects stored and the principles that organize them are exempt neither from time nor from the presence of the spectator. Never quite selfsame, the archive oscillates between embodiment and disembodiment, composition and decomposition, organization and chaos.Griffin 2010, 86Rather than focusing on the individual speech acts comprising an archive, Derrida is concerned with the archive in its broadest sense(s) in Archive Fever. He explores the archive as an abstract idea or “concept,” the personal body (be it individual or corporate) that governs the items in an archive, the items that constitute the archive, and the act of and desire for archiving. Derrida‘s exploration of archives is heavily invested in the notion of power, including the power of the documents preserved in an archive and the power assumed by archivists as they speak for and interpret the archive.Woodbrook and Lazzaro 2013, 14These collections impart a sense of excitement about the dynamic, constantly changing nature of the archive as a thing enlivened by its community.De Kosnik 2016, 6I am writing about actual digital archives, websites you can visit, such as the Internet Archive, ibiblio, Project Gutenburg. I am also writing about metaphorical archives, archives that are opened up by each media text put into circulation, archives that audience members enter into, plunder for usable material, and then augment and expand when they deposit their transformations and variations back into the archive of the source.v.to transfer records of continuing value to a repository and to preserve and manage those recordsBrothman 1993, 206What are the limits of the concept of archiving? Is to archive to give future generations our transmittal slips? Is to archive inevitably to give future (and past) generations—or perhaps even ourselves—the archival slip?Yakel and Torres 2007, 105I have become so heavily involved in this I can’t imagine that he [an uncle] would will those materials to anyone but me. There’s just no one else of my generation who’s remotely interested . . . I sort of just assumed that he would give me the stuff and I would . . . archive it and store it in a much more orderly way than he does. (Genealogist 24, lines 670–75)Marshall, McCown, and Nelson 2007, 151Our past work has revealed that people archive their personal digital belongings by relying on a combination of benign neglect, sporadic backups, and unsystematic file replication.Gilliland 2014a, 46–47Even in cyberspace, they are the individuals who recognize the imperative to archive and who operate at many different levels recording, capturing, and preserving—for example, the manager of the social networking site or the archiver of the listserv.O’Dell 2015#1. What are we describing? ¶ The collections? The websites? Individual pages or publications on the sites we archive? All of these were suggested as potentially appropriate points of access. ¶ I had two questions: 1) How can we best serve users? 2) How can we align description of Web collections with intellectual control for our other collections?Williams and Berilla 2015, 86The authors of the survey conceded that whether or not writers archive their work may be a moot point, since so few become eminent enough to be studied in the future, it is still valuable for digital preservation research.Cobourn 2017, 1Prior to signing our subscription agreement, we identified and met with partiesaround campus that we believed might see the value of such a service and have adesire to archive specific content.Jones and Neubert 2017, 11One can find this article on the sites in Figure 5, but the Library is not harvesting any of those sites, so the only way to archive this is through the RSS crawls.Hight et al. 2017, 15While the practice of closely following a collection development policy is something familiar to archivists, the decision to capture a version of a website may be much easier to make than the decision to pursue a one-of-a-kind manuscript collection. Because multiple people can archive a website simultaneously, the decision to crawl becomes one of convenience, while also looking to avoid the duplication of effort, rather than one of ethics.to back up or to store data offlineBecker and Nogues 2012, 512In this section, we ask you how you back up and archive your work. ¶ 1. How often do you back up your work? (Once a week, Once a month, Once every six months, Once every year, Never, Continually—e.g. using a device or a cloud service such as Dropbox, Other please specify)adj.relating to archives and archival practiceKapp 1859, xiv–xvMy New York acquaintance then took me, without any further parley, straight to the archive chamber, and I was permitted by the superintendent, an agreeable, obliging man, to look over and copy the papers I wanted, on condition that I should get the permission of the Secretary of State, of which he had no doubt.LoC 1907, 141Thus, due to “numerous requests for advice,” the Library of Congress decided to issue a printed guide to its policies and procedures, noting that “there seems not to be available in print a practical guide or aid to the treatment of archive material.”Fitzpatrick 1913, 8Official papers transferred to the archive bureau should be papers whose administrative value has disappeared and are officially dead—papers that actual practice has shown are never consulted for administrative purposes.Jenkinson 1937, 11As will appear later, we do not wish to press for a purely legal definition of custody; but the above examples make it clear that Archive quality is dependent upon the possibility of proving an unblemished line of responsible custodians.Abstracts 1938, 36Abstracts of Archive Publications [title].Leavitt 1961, 176It is difficult to see how Jenkinson came to base his argument against age as a criterion of archive quality so largely on this apparent and superficial difference between two words which are intrinsically the same; it seems still more strange that in the second edition of his book, written 16 years after the first, the same passage is found.Finch 1964, 27As the archive program becomes more sophisticated, archival techniques may become more refined.Preston 1965, 370–371Although such papers, according to strict Jenkinsonian archive theory, no longer qualify as archives and will never go to the Public Record Office, the reasons for the 50-year rule apply equally to the content of ex-archives housed in the British Museum.Gingerich 1966a, 319The American Baptist Historical Society, Rochester, N.Y., has obtained 271 archive boxes of correspondence (1920-55) of the American Baptist Board of Education and Publication.Plasti-Klips 1966, 476Plasti-Klips for Archive Storage [advertisement].Fielding 1967, 498They include (1) the physical difficulties involved in storing and handling motion picture film, as compared with conventional archive materials, (2) the fact that repeated viewings of an archive print will inevitably cause wear and deterioration of that print, and (3) the enormous amount of film produced during the history of the motion picture and available to the archivist—a flood of film whose volume today seems to be increasingly geometrically rather than arithmetically.Vinogradov et al. 1984, 1The subject of archival science is the theoretical study of the archive system as an integral formation and the methodology of its organization, which are based on the philosophy of dialectic materialism and use the achievements of social and natural sciences (sociology, history, theory of social control, theory of information, systems theory, etc.).TRACS 1985, 217By creating real confidence in the archive system, TRACS helps win the space war.Michelson 1987, 192This article is a report of the results of a survey conducted in 1986 to determine the effects of descriptive practice on retrieval capabilities of archive and manuscript materials described in bibliographic utilities.Smither 1987, 333(Figure 2 illustrates that entries in published film archive catalogs, though less comprehensive than those in national filmographies, also offer scope for variations in format.)Burckel 1987, 433The Rockefeller Archive Center was established in 1974 as the research repository for the archives of the Rockefeller University, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, the Rockefeller family, related nonprofit organizations, and persons associated with their endeavors.Neal 1987, 439–440The Awards Committee shall be guided by the following definition: “Archive materials include manuscripts, photographs, motion picture film, and other materials normally found in archives or manuscript repositories. Publication can take any tangible form, including hard copy, microfilm, video disc, etc.”Craig 1993, 241Here is the strategic plan for a university archivist, one that addresses many of Maher’s concerns: a mission statement in order to establish unique archive credentials as the documenter of the university; a clear focus on service to the university community through documenting higher education; the identification of "appraisal" as the engine of the work of the archives, but a special kind of appraisal that is integrated into the organization and its aims rather than its records.Haynes, Kaid, and Rand 1996, 51As a preventive measure, the archive masters are stored on the University of Oklahoma campus in a climatically controlled area, which was remodeled in 1991 to house the PCA [Political Commercial Archive] materials.Craig 2000b, 216However, having made a disclaimer, I would like to direct your attention to areas in which this book is indispensable to archivists, to archive students and beyond, to any scholar who engages the past through written sources, and to any records professional seeking concepts and definitions to pinpoint the nature of records.O’Neal 2015, 1More than any time before tribal communities are establishing strong, growing archival collections documenting their histories; numerous non-tribal repositories are collaborating with and developing shared stewardship protocols with tribal communities regarding Native American collections; and some archive and information science graduate programs are incorporating indigenous ways of knowing and managing records into the curriculum.Hight et al. 2017, 6There was much uncertainty at the time about how to treat websites within a library or archive context, and there were no clear guidelines for description or access.Dooley et al. 2017, 13Descriptive metadata elements include username (labeled “creator”), title, capture date/time, archive file format, title of collection (if defined by user), and URL. Descriptive metadata is automatically generated by Webrecorder during archiving and is embedded in a downloadable WARC file.
Many American and Canadian archivists deprecate the use of the word “archive”—as a noun, verb, or even an adjective, in all of their many meanings. In the case of the noun, the faux plural “archives” is preferred in North American professional discourse—although “archive” is preferred in the rest of the English-speaking world. The verb is sometimes considered a déclassé usage that undermines the serious value of archives and perverts the meaning of what archivists do. The less recognized adjectival form “archive” is often used, but the use of that term is small compared to the use of the more common term “archival.”Despite this disregard for the term, the word “archive” as a noun and adjective is of relatively ancient vintage in North American professional writing about archives. The adjective appears in all of the earliest issues of The American Archivist, beginning in 1938, and the noun has been used by archivists at least since the early 1960s. “Archive” as a verb is about a quarter of a century old in professional parlance, but this archival (rather than information technology) sense of the verb appeared in Webster’s New International Dictionary, second edition, as early as 1934. The meanings assigned to the word “archive” are legion, encompassing archival, information technology, and philosophical concepts.